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真实性是新闻报道的原则

来源:时间:2022-02-28热度:0

  新闻的三大基本特征:

  真实性、时效性、准确性

  现代新闻的三大基本特征:

  KPI、KPI、KPI

  无注释原文:

  Fact-checking: A primer

  Better News

  Jane Elizabeth, American Press Institute, September 2017

  Fact-checking as a form of journalistic writing refers to the assessment of statements and rhetoric for accuracy and truthfulness, as well as the debunking of viral stories and rumors. Fact-checking is a form of accountability journalism because the statements are typically made by people in politics, government or other powerful positions who are held accountable for their words and actions. Fact-checks require original sources, intense research, and high-quality data.

  The journalistic mandate for fact-checking

  The discipline of verification is a key function of journalism. Certainly, data and quotes are readily available to anyone who knows how to search Google. And that’s the problem: Some of that information is more reliable than others, and increasingly have no basis in reality at all. People need to be assured that professional media can help determine the reliability and accuracy of quotes, data and facts.

  The impact of fact-checking

  Research conducted by the American Press Institute and others shows a high level of respect for fact-checking content. In political fact-checking, there is evidence that candidates and politicians who are subject to fact-checking are less likely to misinform voters and misstate facts. As a part of accountability journalism, fact-checking helps increase readership and audience engagement, according to the American Press Institute’s Metrics for News data.

  The debate over format and ratings

  In some newsrooms, fact-checking includes a ranking of the veracity of the statement being checked. Research shows that those rankings — which often are accompanied by colorful illustrations and catchy captions — does tend to attract more readers. Research also shows, however, that a rating system does not improve learning or comprehension among readers. Considering the current politically divisive climate in many communities, essentially calling statements “lies” or their speakers “liars” may not be the best way to promote engagement. Newsrooms should weigh the sentiment among their audiences and consider creating attractive and engaging formats rather than ratings, and focusing on the fact-checking of issues rather that politicians’ statements.

  Best practices and common mistakes in fact-checking

  Clarity, transparency and original sourcing are hallmarks of effective, high-quality fact-checking. Guidelines/best practices for fact-checking should be specifically designed to meet those standards. Clearly “showing your work” to readers and other acts of transparency are essential for building trust — and readership — in your fact-checking program. And accuracy can be guaranteed only with solid, primary or original sources. Mistakes and missteps occur when best practices fail; fact-checkers need to be aware of those pitfalls.

  Skills, training and experience needed for fact-checking

  Fact-checkers need to possess the basic characteristics of journalists — and then some. Curiosity, a desire to both learn and inform, and the ability to understand issues quickly are important. But in fact-checking, those issues can be exceptionally complicated and nuanced. Finding the right sources for verification can be exceptionally difficult. Presenting them to people with clarity and context can be an exercise in creativity and even psychology. Inexperienced reporters may need additional training in research methods and sourcing. And even experienced reporters may need training in a more clear, persuasive form of writing.

  - ◆ -

  注:中文文本为机器翻译仅供参考,并非一一对应

  含注释全文:

  Fact-checking: A primer

  Better News

  Jane Elizabeth, American Press Institute, September 2017

  Fact-checking as a form of journalistic writing refers to the assessment of statements and rhetoric for accuracy and truthfulness, as well as the debunking of viral stories and rumors. Fact-checking is a form of accountability journalism because the statements are typically made by people in politics, government or other powerful positions who are held accountable for their words and actions. Fact-checks require original sources, intense research, and high-quality data.

  事实核查作为新闻写作的一种形式,指的是对声明和辞令的准确性和真实性的评估,以及对广泛传播的故事和谣言的驳斥。事实核查是问责制新闻的一种形式,因为声明通常是由政治、政府或其他有权势地位的人作出的,他们要对自己的言行负责。事实核查需要原始来源、深入研究和高质量的数据。

  primer

  primer /ˈpraɪmə/ 表示“入门书,初学者读物”,英文解释为“a small book containing basic facts about a subject, used especially when you are beginning to learn about that subject”。

  fact-check

  表示“事实核查”,英文解释为“to check that all the facts in a piece of writing, a news article, a speech, etc. are correct”举个?:

  Why don't people fact-check before they publish this stuff?

  为什么人们在发表这些东西之前不进行事实核查呢?

  journalistic

  表示“新闻业的;新闻工作(者)的”,英文解释为“connected with the work of a journalist”如:journalistic skills 新闻工作技巧。

  rhetoric

  rhetoric /ˈretərɪk/表示“辞令;巧辩;(尤指)花言巧语,浮夸之词;煽动性语言”,英文解释为“language that is used to persuade or influence people, especially language that sounds impressive but is not actually sincere or useful”举个?:

  The speech was dismissed by some people as merely political rhetoric.

  有些人认为这场演讲只是华而不实的政治空谈。

  debunk

  表示“驳斥;揭穿,揭露…的真相”,英文解释为“to show that something is less important, less good, or less true than it has been made to appear”举个?:

  The writer's aim was to debunk the myth that had grown up around the actress.

  作者的目的是为了揭穿围绕这位女演员的种种传闻。

  ?《经济学人》(The Economist)去年关于《拆穿胡扯》(Calling Bullshit: The Art of Scepticism in a Data-Driven World)一书的书评文章标题就用的:How to debunk dodgy data 如何看穿骗人的数据。

  viral

  viral作形容词,表示“(通过网络在个体之间迅速)病毒式的(传播)”,英文解释为“used to describe something that quickly becomes very popular or well known by being published on the internet or sent from person to person by email, phone, etc.”举个?:

  Here's a list of the top ten viral videos this week.

  以下是本周十大病毒式传播的视频。

  常见表达:go viral

  ?go viral字面意思就是“像病毒一样传播、扩散”,引申为“走红,十分流行,疯狂传播”,比如朋友圈xxx刷屏了,也可以说go viral,英文解释为“used to describe something that quickly becomes very popular or well known by being published on the internet or sent from person to person by email, phone, etc.”举个?:

  Within days the film clip went viral.

  几天内这个电影片段便病毒式地传开了。

  accountability

  accountability表示“问责制;有义务,有责任;可说明性”,英文解释为“the state of being accountable, liable, or answerable”。

  accountable

  表示“(对自己的决定、行为)负有责任,有说明义务”,英文解释为“responsible for your decisions or actions and expected to explain them when you are asked”举个?:

  Someone must be held accountable for the killings.

  必须有人要对这些凶杀事件负责。

  ?《经济学人》(The Economist)一篇讲述商业软件公司SAP的文章中提到:“COUNT ON US, hold us accountable and together we will reinvent the way businesses run.”“信赖我们,向我们问责,齐心协力,我们将重塑公司的运营方式。”

  The journalistic mandate for fact-checking

  The discipline of verification is a key function of journalism. Certainly, data and quotes are readily available to anyone who knows how to search Google. And that's the problem: Some of that information is more reliable than others, and increasingly have no basis in reality at all. People need to be assured that professional media can help determine the reliability and accuracy of quotes, data and facts.

  核实原则是新闻业的一项关键职能。当然,任何知道如何在谷歌上搜索的人都能轻易获得数据和引文。这就是问题所在:有些信息比其他信息更可靠,而且越来越多的信息根本没有现实依据。人们需要确信,专业媒体可以帮助确定引文、数据和事实的可靠性和准确性。

  verification

  表示“证明,证实,核实”,英文解释为“the act of verifying something (= proving or checking that it exists, or is true or correct)”。

  quote

  表示“引用,引述,援引”,英文解释为“to repeat the words that someone else has said or written”举个?:

  He's always quoting from the Bible.

  他总是引用《圣经》上的话。

  assure

  表示“(尤指为消除其忧虑而)确定地对…说,向…保证,使确信;让…放心”,英文解释为“to tell someone confidently that something is true, especially so that they do not worry”举个?:

  She assured him (that) the car would be ready the next day.

  她向他保证说他的车第二天就能修好。

  ?《经济学人》(The Economist)一篇讲述科技公司和用户隐私问题的文章中提到:DuckDuckGo, a smaller search engine, assures users that it does not track them. 规模更小些的搜索引擎公司DuckDuckGo 保证不会追踪用户信息。

  The impact of fact-checking 事实核查的影响

  Research conducted by the American Press Institute and others shows a high level of respect for fact-checking content. In political fact-checking, there is evidence that candidates and politicians who are subject to fact-checking are less likely to misinform voters and misstate facts. As a part of accountability journalism, fact-checking helps increase readership and audience engagement, according to the American Press Institute's Metrics for News data.

  美国新闻学会(American Press Institute)等机构的研究表明,人们对事实核查内容的尊重程度很高。在政治事实核查方面,有证据表明,接受事实核查的候选人和政治家不太可能误导选民和虚假陈述事实。根据美国新闻学会的新闻指标数据,作为责任制新闻的一部分,事实核查有助于提高读者和受众的参与度。

  subject to

  1)表示“受…支配;服从于”,英文解释为“under the authority of sth/sb”举个?:

  All nuclear installations are subject to international safeguards.

  一切核设施均须执行国际防护措施。

  2)表示“取决于;视…而定”,英文解释为“depending on sth in order to be completed or agreed”举个?:

  The article is ready to publish, subject to your approval.

  那篇文章准备好了,可以发表,就等你批准了。

  3)表示“可能受…影响的;易遭受…的”,英文解释为“likely to be affected by sth, especially sth bad”举个?:

  Flights are subject to delay because of the fog.

  由于有雾,航班可能延误。

  ?电影《鹰眼》(Eagle Eye)中的台词提到:Unattended luggage is subject to collection and search by the airport police. 无人看管的行李会被机场警方托收并检查。

  misinform

  表示“误报;误传”,英文解释为“to tell someone information that is not correct”举个?:

  I was told she would be at the meeting, but clearly I was misinformed.

  我被告知她会参加会议,显然这消息有误。

  misstate

  表示“误述;谎报”,英文解释为“If you misstate something, you state it incorrectly or give false information about it.”举个?:

  The amount was misstated in the table because of an error by regulators.

  由于校准者的失误,图表里的数目是错误的。

  The debate over format and ratings 关于形式和评级的争论

  In some newsrooms, fact-checking includes a ranking of the veracity of the statement being checked. Research shows that those rankings — which often are accompanied by colorful illustrations and catchy captions — does tend to attract more readers. Research also shows, however, that a rating system does not improve learning or comprehension among readers. Considering the current politically divisive climate in many communities, essentially calling statements “lies” or their speakers “liars” may not be the best way to promote engagement. Newsrooms should weigh the sentiment among their audiences and consider creating attractive and engaging formats rather than ratings, and focusing on the fact-checking of issues rather that politicians' statements.

  在一些新闻编辑部,事实核查包括对被核查声明的真实性进行排名。研究表明,这些排名--往往伴随着彩色的插图和醒目的标题--确实倾向于吸引更多的读者。然而,研究也表明,评级系统并不能提高读者的学习或理解能力。考虑到目前许多社区的政治分裂氛围,从本质上说,将声明称为“谎言”或其发言人称为“骗子”可能不是促进参与的最佳方式。新闻室应该权衡受众的情绪,考虑创造有吸引力的、吸引人的形式,而不是评级,并把重点放在对问题的事实核查上,而不是政治家的言论。

  veracity

  veracity /vəˈræsəti/ 表示“真实;真实性;诚实”,英文解释为“the quality of being true; the habit of telling the truth”举个?:

  They questioned the veracity of her story.

  他们质疑她所述事情的真实性。

  catchy

  catchy /ˈkætʃi,ˈketʃi/ 表示“(乐曲、名字、广告)引人注意的;容易记住的”,英文解释为“If you describe a tune, name, or advertisement as catchy, you mean that it is attractive and easy to remember.”如:a song with catchy lyrics 歌词琅琅上口的歌曲。

  caption

  可以作动词,也可以作名词,表示“(或卡通的)说明文字”,英文解释为“A caption is the words printed underneath a picture or cartoon which explain what it is about.”如:a captioned photograph 一幅带有文字说明的照片,举个?:

  The local paper featured me standing on a stepladder with a caption, "He climbs the ladder to success."

  当地的报纸刊登了一幅我站在梯子上的特写,下面写着:“他登上了成功之梯。”

  weigh

  表示“仔细考虑;权衡;掂量”,英文解释为“to carefully consider, especially by comparing facts or possibilities, in order to make a decision”举个?:

  She weighed her options.

  她在各种选择间权衡斟酌。

  ?电影《大地惊雷》(True Grit)中的台词提到:I would have to weigh that. 我得好好想想。

  sentiment

  表示“观点;意见;看法;情绪”,英文解释为“a thought, opinion, or idea based on a feeling about a situation, or a way of thinking about something”举个?:

  I don't think she shares my sentiments.

  我认为她不同意我的观点。

  Best practices and common mistakes in fact-checking 事实核查的最佳做法和常见错误

  Clarity, transparency and original sourcing are hallmarks of effective, high-quality fact-checking. Guidelines/best practices for fact-checking should be specifically designed to meet those standards. Clearly “showing your work” to readers and other acts of transparency are essential for building trust — and readership — in your fact-checking program. And accuracy can be guaranteed only with solid, primary or original sources. Mistakes and missteps occur when best practices fail; fact-checkers need to be aware of those pitfalls.

  清晰、透明和原始来源是有效、高质量事实核查的标志。事实核查的准则/最佳做法应该是专门为满足这些标准而设计的。向读者清楚地“展示你的工作”和其他透明行为,对于在你的事实核查中建立信任--和读者群--至关重要。而且,只有可靠的、主要的或原始的来源才能保证准确性。当做不到这些时,就会出现错误和失误;事实核查人员需要意识到这些隐患。

  clarity

  表示“清楚明了;清晰易懂”,英文解释为“the quality of being clear and easy to understand”举个?:

  There has been a call for greater clarity in this area of the law.

  人们呼吁该法规的这个方面应该更加明确一些。

  transparency

  表示“透明度;显而易见;一目了然”,英文解释为“the quality of sth, such as an excuse or a lie, that allows sb to see the truth easily ”举个?:

  They were shocked by the transparency of his lies.

  他们感到震惊的是他竟睁着眼睛说瞎话。

  hallmark

  表示“特征,特点”,英文解释为“a typical characteristic or feature of a person or thing”举个?:

  Simplicity is a hallmark of this design.

  简洁是该设计的一个特点。

  ?《经济学人》(The Economist)一篇讲述联合利华老板的文章中提到:In the past the hallmark of a good boss was a strategic mind. 以前,一个好老板的标志是战略思维。

  misstep

  注意只有两个s,除了表示“失足,被绊了一下”,也可以表示“错误,失误”,英文解释为“a mistake”举个?:

  His opponents are watching very carefully for him to make a misstep.

  他的对手都在非常小心地观察着他,希望他什么时候走错一步。

  pitfall

  表示“隐患;陷阱”,英文解释为“a likely mistake or problem in a situation”举个?:

  There's a video that tells new students about pitfalls to avoid.

  有一个视频讲述了新生应避免的错误。

  Skills, training and experience needed for fact-checking 事实核查所需的技能、培训和经验

  Fact-checkers need to possess the basic characteristics of journalists — and then some. Curiosity, a desire to both learn and inform, and the ability to understand issues quickly are important. But in fact-checking, those issues can be exceptionally complicated and nuanced. Finding the right sources for verification can be exceptionally difficult. Presenting them to people with clarity and context can be an exercise in creativity and even psychology. Inexperienced reporters may need additional training in research methods and sourcing. And even experienced reporters may need training in a more clear, persuasive form of writing.

  事实核查人员需要具备记者的基本特征--甚至更多。好奇心、学习和知会的渴望,以及迅速理解问题的能力都很重要。但在事实核查中,这些问题可能异常复杂和微妙。找到正确的来源进行核实可能是非常困难的。将它们清晰地呈现给人们,并提供背景,可能是一种创造性甚至是心理学的实践。没有经验的记者可能需要在研究方法和来源方面接受额外培训。即使是有经验的记者也可能需要接受更清晰、更有说服力的写作培训。

  and then some

  表示“甚至更多”,英文解释为“and even more”举个?:

  There were 20,000 people and then some at the party.

  参加聚会的人看起来有两万人,甚至更多。

  exceptionally

  表示“(用于形容词和副词之前表示强调)罕见,特别,非常”,英文解释为“used before an adjective or adverb to emphasize how strong or unusual the quality is”举个?:

  I thought he played exceptionally well.

  我认为他(的球)打得特别好。

  nuanced

  nuanced 这里是形容词,是由它的名词nuance /njuːˈɑːns/派生而来,表示“(在外表、意义、感觉、声音等上)有细微差別的”举个?:

  Opinion polls tell a more nuanced story.

  民意调查中可以发现更微妙的结果。

  context

  1)表示“(事情存在、发生的)背景,环境”,英文解释为“the situation within which something exists or happens, and that can help explain it”举个?:

  It is important to see all the fighting and bloodshed in his plays in historical context.

  结合历史背景解读他戏剧作品中所有的争斗和流血事件,这点很重要。

  2)表示“上下文;语境”,英文解释为“the text or speech that comes immediately before and after a particular phrase or piece of text and helps to explain its meaning”。

  补充:

  ?out of context表示“脱离上下文”,英文解释为“If words are used out of context, only a small separate part of what was originally said or written is reported, with the result that their meaning is not clear or is not understood.”举个?:

  The reporter took my remarks completely out of context.

  记者引用我的话完全是断章取义。

  ? 电影《钢铁侠2》(Iron Man 2)的台词中提到:You do understand that reading a single paragraph out of context does not reflect ... 你知道,如果脱离上下文只读一段是不能体现...

  ? 电影《凯文怎么了》(We Need to Talk About Kevin)的台词中提到:Listen buddy, it's easy to misunderstand something when you hear it out of context. 如果你听到的东西脱离了上下文就很容易产生误解。

  ? 电影《三代人》(3 generations)的台词中提到:This is not helpful, you can't take things out of context. 这样做没用,你不能断章取义。


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